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« Thread started on: Sep 17th, 2006, 04:08am »

http://www.wattnet.com/Archives/Docs/605pi26.pdf?CFID=4026676&CFTOKEN=35768924
DIGESTIVE AIDS-A BRAVE NEW WORLD OF NUTRITION

http://www.jefo.ca/pdf/ALA2003_en.pdf#search='bacteriophages%20poultry'
POULTRY THERAPEUTICS: NEW ALTERNATIVES (2003, Poultry Science journal)
>New concepts and new products are and will be used as alternatives to therapeutic antibiotics. Of natural origin, these products could show great advantages. A short review will be done on bacteriocins, antimicrobial peptides, bacteriophages, chicken interferon gamma (ChIFNã), chlorates, specific antibodies, plant extracts and organic acids.

http://www.canadianpoultry.ca/principles_of_competitive_exclusion.htm
An excellent article discussing the PRINCIPLES of COMPETITIVE EXCLUSION

http://www.avian.uga.edu/documents/pip/2006/PIP-March-April%202006.pdf
2006 review on Gut Microflora/Intestinal Health

http://www.wattnet.com/SHARED/DownLoad.cfm?libNum=768
Another article on COMPETITIVE EXCLUSION

http://www.scielo.br/pdf/rbca/v7n2/a09v7n2.pdf
Complementary research article on the above (CE)
EXCERPT: "Competitive exclusion (CE) has been designed to accelerate the colonization of the alimentary tract of young commercial birds and it has been also used to repopulate the digestive tract after antibiotic therapy. The method has been successfully adopted as a means to prevent enteric salmonellosis. The present study was carried out to evaluate if CE is able to prevent this kind of infection."

http://www.uae.gov.ae/uaeagricent/livestock/avianSalmonP1-1-en.stm
(excerpt re COMPETITIVE EXCLUSION from excellent review of SALMONELLOSIS):
..."Both commercial CE products are marketed in several countries. Reluctance of authorities to grant licenses to undefined products is the major reason for slow penetration of the market. The requirements depend essentially on the licensing category which may vary among countries. A WHO Workshop (WHO/CDS/VPH/94.134) has recommended that a new product category “Normal Gut Flora” should be created for CE preparations these products should be distinguished from live probiotics, which usually consist of only one or a few strains to enhance performance.


The official requirements for current undefined preparations include:

Disease free donor bird from a health-monitored specific pathogen-free flocks.
Good laboratory and manufacturing practices (GLP and GMP) used throughout the production process.
Meticulous examination of primary inocula for human and poultry pathogens by laboratories certified by licensing authorities.
Additional requirements contributing to the safety of an undefined CE product:

Low prevalence of contagious diseases in the country where the CE preparation is produced.
Consecutive stages of propagation in manufacture which contribute to a total dilution of at least 1:10.
Media used for propagation should not support the proliferation of Mycoplasma sp. Or viruses.
Careful quality control of the composition of the final product batches using indicator organisms.
The safety of the current CE preparations is also reflected by prolonged field experience applying treatment to hundreds of millions of birds without any reported adverse effects. There are also no substantiated claims for inhalation allergy or other occupational risks or hazards to workers administering the treatment.


Results Obtained Using CE

The effect of consistent and widely applied CE treatment can be assessed from the data obtained in Finland, Sweden, and the U.K. From Finland, two monitoring and treatment programs are cited. A broiler integration used Broilact® to treat 400 flocks. A total of 192 untreated flocks served as controls during a three year period from 1986 to 1988. Only 6.5% of the treated flocks compared to 21% of the untreated flocks were positive for Salmonella at the time of slaughter. In a second integration, 49% of 55 flocks were infected with Salmonella in 1987. Introduction of hygiene control measures and CE treatment reduced the incidence to 11% within a year.

The long term use of CE preparations contributed significantly to the favorable salmonella situation in Finland. At present, more than 90% of broiler flocks are treated with Broilact®.
The percentage of Salmonella contaminated broiler flocks has averaged 2.2% this decade, and 0.5% in January-May 1996. The level of Salmonella contamination in retail poultry meat has also been very low; and only one of the 101 portioned broiler meat samples examined for salmonella was positive in 1995.
It must be remembered , that CE treatment is no panacea or substitute for satisfactory production hygiene. The problem of salmonella can only be solved by a coordinated program..


Future Development and Applications Of CE:

The concept was originally devised to control salmonella infections. It has been shown experimentally that the adult intestinal populations contains bacteria which can protect chicks against pathogenic E .coli, yersinia, and campylobacter spp.

Implicit in the CE concept is the early establishment of a normal adult flora. This also applies to situations where the flora has been destroyed or seriously disturbed by antibiotic treatment or stress.
Combined antibiotic therapy and CE treatment is recommended, especially when breeding or laying flocks are infected with invasive species including S. entertidis or S. typhimurium. Bailey-JS et al., (2000) conducted a series of four paired-house studies in Arkansas, Alabama and Georgia (two farms) to determine the efficacy of Mucosal Starter Culture (MSC) in eliminating or reducing Salmonellae in broiler chickens. Randomly designated chicks were treated twice with MSC. First they were sprayed with an MSC solution using a spray vaccination cabinet in the hatchery, and then they received MSC in the first drinking water at the growing house.

Chicks were grown in identically constructed and equipped paired houses managed by the same grower. At the end of grow-out, broilers were tested for the presence of Salmonellae on the farm and during processing. The results confirmed that when Salmonellae levels were controlled in the hatchery, a significant reduction in the salmonellae was found on processed broiler carcasses treated with MSC and that this reduction in Salmonellae was carried through processing to the final processed carcass, thus potentially reducing consumer exposure to Salmonellae.


In the International Health review in International Poultry production (1997). Under the title of New challenges-new approaches The following report was recorded on Competitive Exclusion:

Competitive exclusion or the nurmi Concept as it was previously known, is an effective way of controlling Salmonella infection in poultry.
Competitive exclusion (CE) is basically the early establishment of an adult intestinal micro flora in the bird’s digestive tract that will help prevent the colonization.
Of that digestive tract by undesirable micro organisms or enteropathogens such as salmonella.
Even 1997 the exact mechanisms by which CE works is not fully understood.
Bacteria have one or more of several mechanisms that enable them to inhibit or reduce the number of other species in the chicken's digestive tract.

These includes:

The removal of essential nutrients (substrates) by either consuming them or competing for them.
Production of antibiotic substances.
Creating a physiological environment in the digestive tract that restricts their growth.
Competing for bacterial receptor or sited on the intestinal wall.
Volatile fatty acids such as acetic, propionic and butyric acids are produced by anaerobic bacteria in the birds caeca and these are known to have an inhibitory effect on salmonella.
This action is thought to be an important aspect of the CE mechanism, However , other actions such as a purely physical one of bacterial types and their respective numbers is also important.
The ability of a bacterium to adhere to the wall of the digestive tract and thereby colonize its mucosal surface is important.
Thus, if bacteria in a product can colonize the wall of the digestive tract, undesirable organisms such as Salmonella are not able to adhere to the mucosal lining of the digestive tract. Thus, if they cannot colonize the digestive tract they cannot assume importance or create infection.
In practice CE is usually involved in one of two situations.

Firstly, it can be given to the day old to ensure that it has a comprehensive gut flora established at the earliest possible age. This then places the day old in the best possible position to ward off a subsequent salmonella challenge. If the normal gut flora was deficit, the salmonella would have a better chance of becoming established in the chick’s digestive tract and causing problems.
Secondly, the CE problems can be administered after a period of medication. This is because the medication will have reduced the beneficial bacterial flora in the bird’s gut and in this instance the CE product is being used to top up or re-establish the beneficial microflora.


This approach can be used in salmonella control programs
In such a program:

The salmonella in the bird’s tissues and digestive tract are treated by medicating with a suitable antibiotic.
CE is then used to quickly re-establish the intestinal tract flora so as to remove any potential window of opportunity that the presence of a depressed intestinal micro-flora presents to any opportunist Salmonella organisms.
If this can be combined with moving the birds into a clean environment, then all the better.
The benefits of this are compounded if the procedure is used over several production cycles.
In 1994 and 1995 the Dutch Poultry Health Ministry at Doorn treated 32 known Salmonella enteritidis positive flocks with a procedure based on medication with enrofloxacin followed by the use of competitive exclusion. (contd. below
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« Reply #1 on: Oct 22nd, 2006, 03:17am »

(contd)

Movement of birds into clean houses was not practical. After one treatment a success rate of 72% had been achieved and after two treatments this rose to 93%.
In this study Salmonella status was confirmed by bacteriological testing of the breeder flock and its progeny. Experience in many countries now indicates that the most effective Salmonella control programs are those based on several strategies and not those that place all their reliance on one method.


An excellent Salmonella control strategy is summarized as follow:

Control strategy should include;

Biosecurity + First class hygiene + Competitive Exclusion + Vaccination + Feed Acidification + Coperhensive Monitoring and when necessary, Treatment.
The importance of a balanced program can not be over emphasized and the program will only work if everyone-staff, management and suppliers- give the program 100% support.
In recent times evidence has begun to surface that CE has some hidden benefits in terms of growth rate, body rate and FCR improvements.
There are also indications that this technology has effects similar to those seen with Salmonella against organisms such as campylobacter and enterepathogenic E. Coli.
Combine this observation with the current consumer led trend against in-feed use of chemicals and the importance of CE in poultry production may assume new dimensions in the year ahead.

Selective enrichment of Salmonella using a combination of 0.3% Selenite, 0.5% cholate and Static incubation was examined for five common serotypes in the presence of Salmonella-free chicken faeces. Enrichment cultures were then assayed by the polymexin-cloth enzyme immunoassay (polymexin CEIA). This selective enrichment method was effective in suppressing large excesses of chicken faecal microflora, while permitting the growth of small numbers of Salmonella. When the medium contained no selective agents, the ability of the polymexin CEIA to detect Salmonella was markedly reduced in the presence of large excesses of chicken faecal microflora. The advantages of using static incubation and a dot-blot format for the polymexin CEIA are discussed for application in the hazard analysis critical control point program. (Chen-H et. al, 1995)

The effect of treatment with a newly developed characterized continuous flow (CCF) culture composed of 29 strains of caecal bacteria on Salmonella colonization was evaluated in commercially reared broiler chickens. The results indicated that the CCF culture served to enhance Salmonella colonization resistance and it is suggestesd that it may serve as a useful component of an integrated control program. (Corrier-DE, et al., 1995). Two experiments were conducted to determine the role of the microbiotic preparations, Lactiferm L-400 and L-50, in protecting ducks against Salmonella infection. Any form of Lactiferm application resulted in an increase in Live weight and decrease in mortality. Feed conversion was slightly, better in trial groups than in the control. (Weis-J et al., 1997).

Control by competitive exclusion of intestinal colonization by salmonella infantis was studied in domestic chicks and turkey poults given a commercial product developed for use with chicks, compared with two similar preparations containing intestinal microorganisms from turkeys. Each type of material protected both avian species when given orally before challenge; the degree of protection depends at least as much on the type of protection as its host origin (Schneitz-C and Nuotio-L, 1992).

A review considers the concept of competitive exclusion ( CE), mechanism of (CE), Lactobacillus and growth in domestic fowl, Lactobacillus interaction with enteric pathogens, L. reuteri in the normal intestinal microflora, the L- reuteri-reuterin system, site (S) of action of Lactobacillus in the process of CE, Lactobacillus involvement in reduced pathogenicity of Salmonella, current in ovo technology, and L-reuteri in ovo studies with chicken and turkey embryos (Edens-FW et al., 1997).



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xx Re: Review of Various Alternatives
« Reply #2 on: Dec 29th, 2006, 03:21am »

http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/livestock/poultry/facts/altermed.htm
A review of several studies...short concise
(small excerpt):
Nutrition Supplementation:
(Enhance Immune System)
a. Vitamin E
b. Vitamin C
c. Organic selenium (i.e. Selplex®)
-feathering trial
-ascites trial

Selplex Trial: Feathering

Housing and Selenium Influences on Feathering in Broilers

F.W. Edens et al
North Carolina State University
2001 Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 10: 128 - 134

Summary:
...the OR induced more rapid whole body feathering in the slow - feathering males as well as in the normal - feathering females…The mechanism for improved feathering rate in normal - feathering females and slow - feathering males given OR has not been determined.

Selplex Trial: Ascites

Effects of Dietary Vitamin E and Selenium Source on Incidence of Ascites, Growth Performance and Blood Parameters in Cold Stressed Broilers
G. Roch, M. Boulianne and L. DeRoth
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Montreal Quebec, Canada
Poultry Science, Vol. 79 (Suppl, 1): 41, 2000

Abstract:
...This study showed that high Vitamin E and organic selenium, when used in combination, reduced mortality associated with PHS in cold stressed broiler chickens, and improved feed conversions. This can probably be explained by the protective effects of antioxidant and resulting in better cellular membrane integrity."




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« Reply #3 on: Feb 6th, 2007, 10:09am »

http://animalscience.ucdavis.edu/avian/pfs30.htm
Use of Competitive Exclusion Products for Poultry
University of California, Cooperative Extension
(excerpt)
...."Competitive exclusion products are also called probiotics, direct-fed microbials or CE cultures. For simplicity the term CE product will be used in this Fact Sheet. Competitive exclusion products may provide a significant tool for the poultry industry in combating the occurrence of intestinal disease and reduction of food borne pathogens.

Physiologic maturation of the intestine. The newly hatched chicken or turkey gut is devoid of bacteria. In the first few hours to days of life, the normal gut bacteria (microflora) that inhabit the intestine become established. This holds true in all animals. Intestinal microflora function to break down ingested food, produce some vitamins and most importantly provide a natural barrier to harmful bacteria that enter the host. In the days when chicks were hatched under a hen, the bacteria shed in the feces of the healthy adult hen provided the inoculum for the establishment of a similar microflora in the chicks. With the advent of modern incubation, the first bacteria the chick or poult is exposed to are those in the incubator, chick box, and litter of the poultry house.

Factors influencing the microflora of the gut once it is established. The normal microflora of the intestinal tract is made up of a diverse population of bacteria. Some of these bacteria are anaerobic (grow without oxygen), some are aerobic (oxygen dependent) and some are in between (facultative anaerobes or microaerophilic). All of these bacteria are in competition for survival. They compete for attachment sites and nutrients from the ingesta passing through the intestine. Each species of bacteria has specific requirements for growth. They are affected by relative acidity or alkalinity (pH) of their environment and by products produced by neighboring bacteria. The environment of the intestine can be altered by the compostion of the diet of the bird or by disease (e.g. coccidiosis, viral enteritis). As an example of the effect of diet on gut microflora, researchers have demonstrated that the colonization of some pathogens can be inhibited by feeding the bird complex sugars, like mannose or lactose. "



Joan S. Jeffrey, DVM, MS, ACPV, Extension Poultry Specialist


http://japr.fass.org/cgi/content/full/15/2/341
Prospects in Salmonella Control: Competitive Exclusion, Probiotics, and Enhancement of Avian Intestinal Immunity
(EXCERPT)
"Salmonella infections are mainly asymptomatic in poultry but are associated with widespread human illness from this source. Therefore, there is continuing interest in finding ways of preventing flock infection and, hence, contamination of poultry products with salmonellas. This review considers aspects of Salmonella carriage in poultry and host interactions that may be exploitable in the future to improve existing control measures. These include factors involved in colonization of the gastrointestinal tract, the role of competitive exclusion and probiotic treatments, and enhancement of intestinal immunity.................................
..........Probiotics, defined as live cultures of microorganisms administered orally, act beneficially on host health; inhibit pathogens; enhance intestinal immunity; and have a protective effect on the gut microflora [20]. There is strong scientific evidence supporting that certain components of the gut microflora are involved in protection of the host against infectious diseases [21].

Factors affecting intestinal colonization of poultry by salmonellas are reviewed in this article, and considerations are given to possible means of increasing host resistance to Salmonella infection by use of CE products or probiotic treatment and their relationship with enhancement of intestinal immunity in the bird. "

http://www.redorbit.com/news/science/161113/comparative_gut_microflora_metabolic_challenges_and_potential_opportunities/
Comparative Gut Microflora, Metabolic Challenges, and Potential Opportunities
(excerpt)

http://www.ejbiotechnology.info/content/vol6/issue3/full/1/index.html
ANTIMICROBIAL PEPTIDES (AMPs)
Antimicrobial peptides: A natural alternative to chemical antibiotics and a potential for applied biotechnology
(excerpt from this excellent full text review):
"...The new generation of native peptide molecules, also known as Anti Microbial Peptides (AMPs), isolated from a full range of organisms and species from bacteria to man, seem to fit this description. As a consequence, they have been termed "natural antibiotics", because they are active against a large spectrum of microorganisms, including bacteria and filamentous fungi - in addition to protozoan and metazoan parasites (Liu et al. 2000; Vizioli and Salzet, 2003). All of these molecules are key elements directly implicated in the innate immune response of their hosts, which includesthe expression of fluid phase proteins that recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns, instead of specific features of a given agent to promote their destruction. As a result, the response is very fast, highly efficient and applicable to a wide range of infective organisms (Hoffmann and Reichhart, 2002). Additionally, the effect of AMPs can go beyondisolated bacterial cells, as shown by the inhibition they can exert over clusters of pathogenic bacteria, such in biofilm development (Singh et al. 2002).

....The knowledge acquired in the past two decades and the discovery of new groups of antimicrobial peptides make natural antibiotics the basic element of a novel generation of drugs for the treatment of bacterial and fungal infections ........ In addition, the wide spectrum of antimicrobial activities reported for these molecules suggests they potential benefit in the treatment of cancer (Tanaka, 2001) and viral (Chinchar et al. 2001; Andersen et al. 2001; Chernysh et al. 2002) or parasitic infections (Vizioli and Salzet, 2003). Different therapeutic applications of these compounds, from topical administration to systemic treatment of infections, have been developed by several biotechnological companies .......Interestingly, to date, clinical Phase I and II trials have shown a limited resistance for the bacterial strains tested (Zasloff, 2002). These features make the antibiotic peptides a powerful arsenal of molecules that could be the antimicrobial drugs of the new century as an innovative response to the increasing problem of MDR......"

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« Reply #4 on: Dec 30th, 2007, 03:31am »

http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-08032004-160558/unrestricted/mohanthesis.pdf
An extensive review (a few excerpts below)
PHARMACOLOGICAL SCREENING OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS AS ANTIMICROBIAL AND FEED ADDITIVES
".....Since ancient times, herbs and their essential oils have been known for their varying degrees of
antimicrobial activity (Shelef 1983; Zaika, 1988; Beuchat and Golden, 1989; Juven et al, 1994; Chang,
1995). More recently, medicinal plant extracts were developed and proposed for use in food as natural
antimicrobials (Del Campo et al., 2000; Hsieh, 2000; Hsieh et al., 2001). However, little or no work has
been done on the effects of plant extracts on body weight and performance in poultry. The present study
was conduced to determine the effect of different medicinal plant (herbs) extracts in broiler diets as a
possible alternative to antibiotic feed additives...........

...Use of medicinal plants in poultry research
No significant differences in body weight or feed efficiency were observed after dietary
administration of 5 or 20 ppm of capsaicin in broilers. However the Salmonella enteritidis (S. enteritidis)
positive culture rate for cecal tonsils was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in the treatment groups receiving
5 ppm or 20 ppm dietary capsaicin than in the untreated control group. Capsaicin administration
increases resistance to S. enteritidis colonization and organ invasion without detrimental effects on
growth in broiler chickens (McElroy et al., 1994). Adding high levels of some varieties of sweet lupines
in broiler diets decreased feed intake and growth rate in broilers and specific signs of acute and chronic
toxicity in some individuals were observed (Olkowski et al., 2001)........
Medicinal plants with antimicrobial activity

Cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia)
Essential oils of cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia), were found to possess antimicrobial properties
in-vitro and shown to inhibit the growth of B.cereus (Kalemba and Kunicka, 2003; Valero and Salmeron,
2003). Alcoholic extracts of cinnamon were found most effective against Helicobacter pylori, in
reducing its growth (Tabak et al., 1996). It was found that a combination of cinnamon and nisin
accelerated the death of S. typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 in apple juice, and hence enhanced the
safety of the product (Yuste and Fung, 2004). A study by Mau et al.(2001) on the antibacterial activity of
extracts of chive (Allium tuberosum), cinnamon and corni fructus (Cornus officinalis) against common foodborne microorganisms, alone and in combination, showed that the mixed extract, consisting of three
extracts in equal volumes possessed an antimicrobial spectrum and had excellent stability to heat, pH, and
storage on growth of E. coli at 2-5 mg/ml. The mixed extract also inhibited the growth of Pichia
membranaefaciens at 2 mg/ml. When the mixed extract was used in foods, an expected antimicrobial
effect in orange juice, pork, and milk was observed. Overall, the mixed extract has promising potential
for incorporation into various food products for which a natural antimicrobial additive is desired.
H. pylori is associated with the pathogenesis of gastritis, duodenal ulcers, and gastric lymphoma.
The cinnamon extract, at a concentration of 80 mg /day as a single agent, was found ineffective in
eradicating H. pylori infections in an experiment carried out in human subjects (in-vivo). However, a
combination of cinnamon with other antimicrobials, or cinnamon extract at a higher concentration, may
prove useful. The cinnamon extract was well tolerated and side effects were minimal (Nir et al., 2000).
Acute (24 hours) and chronic (90 days) oral toxicity studies on an ethanol extract of cinnamon in mice at
the dose rate of 0.5, 1.0 , or 3 g/kg for acute and 100 mg/kg/day for chronic studies showed that the
extracts caused no significant acute or chronic mortality compared to the control during the study (Shah et
al., 1998).
A 67% ethanol/water extract of cinnamon bark inhibited the activity of bacterial endotoxin. This
was the first report, which states that an inhibitor of bacterial endotoxin exists in a plant (Azumi et al.,
1997). The bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (C. zeylanicum) was found effective against fluconazoleresistant
candida species, which is an emerging problem. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC)
of the bark of C. zeylanicum bark ranged from < 0.05-30 mg/ml and were slightly better than
commercially available cinnamon powder. Cinnamon candies and gums have MIC ranging from 25-100
mg/ml (Quale et al., 1996). A comparative bacteriostatic study showed that the bacteriostatic effect of
oleum of Perilla frutescens and Cinnamomum cassia, was superior than benzoic acid (Zhang et al., 1990).
Buffered methanol (80% methanol and 20% PBS) and acetone extracts of edible plants of 26
species including cinnamon screened for their antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus,
Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and Salmonella infantis by the disc...."

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xx Hops > effective against clostridium
« Reply #5 on: Jan 14th, 2010, 07:50am »

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/10/081031214527.htm
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