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DL
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xx Crop Stasis/Sour Crop
« Thread started on: Oct 26th, 2006, 3:18pm »

Some of the links/articles are from cage bird sites but the basic principles are the same for poultry

http://www.browneggblueegg.com/Article.html
See these two articles (scroll down the menu on left to SOUR CROP) on Sour Crop at Alan Stanfords site

http://www.vin.com/VINDBPub/SearchPB/Proceedings/PR05000/PR00290.htm
(excerpt)
"Crop stasis is often accompanies illness in babies and may be the first indicator of a real problem. A depressed baby bird demonstrating crop stasis is a medical emergency.

Crop stasis is one of the most common legitimate reasons for the presentation of juvenile psittacines to a veterinary practice. While "sour crop" is the term most often used to describe the condition, rarely is the crop the problematic organ. The vast majority of babies presented for "sour crop" are actually experiencing illness unrelated to the crop. Lower gastrointestinal disturbances, chlamydiosis, bacterial septicemia, or metabolic diseases such as hepatic lipidosis are all examples of conditions that may present with crop slowing or stasis as a part of the clinical picture........
Food that has stagnated in the crop spoils similarly to food which has remained sitting unrefrigerated in a warm environment for several hours. The bacterial density of this formula becomes excessive while bacterial toxins accumulate. Regardless of the reason for the stagnation the spoiled food becomes a significant source of pathogens and the toxins produced by them. In order to stabilize the patient this material must be removed......Depending on the particle size of the formula, either a standard red rubber or a ball-tipped metal feeding tube can be introduced into the crop. The crop contents can than be aspirated by direct suction. It is sometimes necessary prior to aspiration to thin the spoiled material by introducing warm water or electrolyte solutions into the crop. The contents can then be mixed by palpation and aspirated. It is important to palpate the tube in the crop during aspiration to prevent the crop wall from being suctioned against the end of the feeding tube. Once the crop has been reasonably emptied it should be lavaged by repeatedly filling it with a warm balanced electrolyte solution, massaging the crop and mixing its contents, and aspirating the fluid until clear............."

http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/170205.htm
"Crop (gavage) feeding may be used to maintain caloric needs in anorectic birds. Many commercial formulas are available and convenient to use. Adequate hydration must be established prior to initiating crop feeding to prevent desiccation of the crop food and stasis of the GI tract. .."

http://www3.sympatico.ca/davehansen/digest.html
(Excerpts with the kind permission of Dave Hansen)
"Sour-crop" may often be associated with vitamin or protein deficiencies, infections such as candidiasis and trichomoniasis, or with liver or kidney disease. Another possible cause is pressure from growths inside the body cavity which may hinder the flow of intestinal content, causing backflow into the proventriculus and crop. Sometimes it is possible that destruction of mucous or enzyme-producing glands in the proventriculus may stimulate the return flow of acid into the crop and in poor health this alone may be sufficient to cause "sour crop" with erosion of the crop epithelium. Sometimes the crop becomes flaccid, as a result of the muscles of the crop wall losing their tone or contractibility. This results in food being held up in the crop because of its inability to force the food further down the oesophagus into the proventriculus. There is often no actual obstruction, but when the crop becomes full the food material begins to overflow into the upper part of the oesophagus and this may eventually lead to true obstruction. The circumstances leading to crop obstruction and "sour crop" are similar.

CANDIDA, THRUSH, YEAST or CROP infection:
Candida are colonies of single, oval cells which bud and in some circumstances develop into chains or hyphae. They most frequently attack the epithelium of the crop. The infection can be induced by prolonged use of antibiotics, such as the tetracyclines, in the drinking water. NYSTATIN or MYCOSTATIN (different brand names) are mainly used today. Some breeders have found that one tablespoon of Epson Salts in a cup of drinking water for 2 or 3 days does the trick but only in mild cases. For more information of digestive problems including crop problems see the Digestive System and scroll down to read "THE OESOPHAGUS & CROP".

CLINICAL SIGNS: The chief signs of infection of the alimentary tract are unthriftiness, listlessness and a bedraggled appearance, young birds being most prone to the disease. Patches of raised, whitish, dead epithelial material are occasionally seen in the mouth and these can easily be scraped off the mucous membrane. In this situation the lesions may affect the breathing. The crop and oesophagus are the main sites of the lesions. Less frequently, the epithelium of the proventriculus is affected and sometimes the yeasts are found in the intestinal tract. Occasionally regurgitation of food and loose droppings may occur. Diarrhoea is more likely to result from some concurrent gut infection and vomiting is more likely to be associated with unsuitable food, gut obstruction or bacterial, parasitic infestation of the alimentary tract. Pox infection may be confused with candidiasis in pigeons, but laboratory identification of the fungus will clinch the diagnosis.

TREATMENT AND PREVENTION: Prevention is largely a matter of good hygiene and management. Stale food, dirty premises, overcrowding and allowing water to slop over food or litter, all contribute to the build-up of an epidemic in young stock. In well-kept premises, however, the infection should never be a serious worry. Few treatments have appreciable effect, although powdered nystatin, or mycostatin by mouth or copper sulphate in the drinking water or Epson salts have sometimes appeared to be effective. Dimetridazole also appears helpful especially in pigeons, probably because it prevents secondary infection by trichomonads. It is possible that certain nutritional deficiencies, especially of the vitamin B complex, may be predisposing causes of the disease.
THE PROVENTRICULUS OR GLANULAR STOMACH
Food passes through the oesophagus and crop to reach the proventriculus, which it tends to traverse relatively easily. When the normal passage of food is interrupted by irregular feeding, it may interfere with the outflow of proventricular juices. The normal peristaltic or squeezing onward movements of the oesophagus and crop, may then be reversed (antiperistalsis) resulting in souring of the crop contents by proventricular secretions, and producing irritation of the crop lining and vomiting. Deficiencies in the diet, for example of vitamin A, and certain bacterial and possibly viral infections, may lead to ulceration of the epithelium of the proventriculus. Candidiasis is also capable of producing lesions in the proventriculus. Abnormal fermentation, as in the crop, can also result in distension of the proventriculus with gases. "

http://www.silvio-co.com/cps/articles/1998/1998barras1.htm
(Candian Parrot Symposium) Keys to the Successful Identification, Treatment and Control of Crop Dysfunction

http://www.cagenbird.com/crop_prob.htm
an excellent review of crop problems

http://www.hilltopanimalhospital.com/improper%20hand%20feeding.htm
(excerpt)
Crop stasis is very common ............primary causes include infection, crop foreign bodies (FBs), atony, burns, dehydration of food in the crop, hypothermia, and food or an environment that is too cold or too hot. The most common cause of crop stasis is yeast or candidiasis. Secondary causes include distal gut stasis due to ileus, intestinal intussusception, bacterial or fungal infection, sepsis....... gastrointestinal (GI) tract FBs, and renal or hepatic failure..........................
Fluids are key in the treatment of both crop and other GI tract stasis cases. Initially, oral fluids can rehydrate inspissated crop material and hasten its passage. If passage is not hastened, static crops should be flushed first thing in the morning and before each feed, as needed, for a few days. SC fluids are the treatment of choice for systemic rehydration and should be given in all cases of crop stasis regardless of severity..... If the crop is severely impacted, repeated flushing with warm saline may be required daily until GI motility is restored.
A crop bra is a simple form of mechanical management for the overstretched crop; reduction surgery may be necessary to facilitate emptying. Hypoproteinemia also may occur secondary to severe chronic crop stasis. In these cases, whole blood transfusions, and metoclopra-mide or cisapride, may be indicated as long as GI obstruction has been ruled out.
Chronic nonresponsive crop stasis may involve mural candidiasis. These cases are best diagnosed with biopsy and require long-term systemic anti-fungal and antibiotic treatment and acetic acid gavage. The most common clinical signs of crop stasis are a visibly oversized static crop and regurgitation. Although a manageable problem, crop stasis can be a fatal condition due to dehydration and sepsis and, therefore, demands immediate intervention and significant fluid therapy......."

therapy....."

http://www.bsava.com/VirtualContent/85340/psittacines_ch18.pdf
(see page 18 for a photo of a crop bra)

info on crop bra and massage (instructions>warnings):
http://www.avianweb.com/slowcrop.html

http://www.kaytee.com/ask_the_experts/diseases_and_disorders/
Diseases and Disorders of The Avian Crop






« Last Edit: Sep 23rd, 2007, 05:34am by DL » User IP Logged

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xx Re: Crop Stasis/Sour Crop- non caged
« Reply #1 on: Oct 30th, 2006, 06:15am »

For coop kept birds weather conditions can also lead to sour crop in young birds, less than six months old.

In very rainy conditions even when kept in the coop young birds can develop sour crop. Listlessness, a full squishy crop, almost normal looking feces and frequent water intake can be signs of sour crop.

Remove the bird to a warm, dry place. Which in my case is the house. Give it the option of having a warming light to sit under if it chooses. Sulmet is recommended as a course of treatment for the above conditions, Nystatin is still preferable.
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xx Re: Crop Stasis/Sour Crop
« Reply #2 on: Sep 23rd, 2007, 06:27am »

http://www.forthebirdsdvm.com/Nonfooditems.pdf
"....Anything slowing the emptying
of the stomach can slow the emptying of the crop
. It is all too common for companion birds to accumulate
nonfood items in their stomachs that will cause distention of the crop.......Nonfood items can accumulate and significantly interfere with normal digestion.
D
Dirt......Where as it may be normal in the wild for some
birds, especially ground feeders, to consume some dirt, the components of commercial dirt make the difference.
Typical “dirt” in our homes or yards is often commercial potting soil. Potting soil is often full of chemical additives
(nitrogen fertilizers), compost and manure. It often contains water- holding particles. These things are not
designed to be eaten......"

more info on crop bras (for use in cases where the crop fails to empty):http://www.nhahonline.com/b_general.htm
"....If crop stasis occurs because of stretching from overfeeding or another medical condition, use a crop bra to elevate the crop and allow gravity to assist in crop emptying. This simple device is made of elastic self-adhesive tape. Place the tape ventrally and caudally to the crop, and fasten the tape behind the back of the chick. Keep the bra loose enough so respiration is not inhibited and the crop can be filled to its normal capacity. Leave the crop bra on the chick until the crop can empty without the help of the crop bra. The length of time varies with every case............."

http://www.petparrot.com/Injuries.htm
scroll down to the section "Stretched Crop" to see illustration and some handy tips on the placement of the cropbra on the bird... (do please think about the material you use for the bra...she suggests the use of a gauze bandage which you should not use...many have reported the bird will pick and eat the strings causing impaction)

http://www.funnyfarmexotics.com/IAS/2003Proceedings/Romagnano_Pediatrics.pdf
(Avian Pediatrics April Romagnano, PhD, DVM, Dipl. ABVP (Avian Practice)...small excerpt:
".....Crop Stasis Crop stasis is very common in neonate and juvenile birds.6,7 Primary causes of crop stasis include infection, crop FB's (such as feeding tube or syringe tips), atony, burns, dehydration of food in the crop, hypothermia, cold or hot food and environment. The most common primary cause of crop stasis is yeast or candidiasis.6,7 Secondary causes include distal gut stasis due to ileus, intestinal intussusception, bacterial or fungal infection, sepsis, dilation,
PDD, polyomavirus, GIT FB's, renal or hepatic failure.6,7 Medical and mechanical management are typically needed for the treatment of crop stasis. Diagnostics as described above are very important, especially culture, crop and fecal cytology, and blood work. Further
diagnostics, such as radiography, should be performed as needed without hesitation.

Fluids are key in the treatment of both crop and other GIT stasis cases.6,7 Oral fluids rehydrate inspissated crop material and hasten its passage. SQ fluids are the treatment of choice for systemic rehydration. IV fluids are best in the severely dehydrated patient. In these cases, placement of a right jugular IV catheter is preferred. These IV catheters are safely maintained
for days. If the crop is severely impacted, repeated flushing with warm saline may be needed to empty it. A crop bra is a simple form of mechanical management for the over stretched crop. The bras are made in-house of Vetrap (3M Vetrap, Animal Care Products, St. Paul, MN). In a severely over-stretched crop, reduction surgery may be necessary to facilitate emptying. Further, hypoproteinemia may occur secondary to severe chronic crop stasis. In these cases,
whole blood transfusions and metoclopromide or cisapride may be indicated, as long as GI obstruction has been ruled out.

Chronic non-responsive crop stasis may involve mural candidiasis. These cases are best diagnosed with biopsy and require long-term systemic antifungal and antibiotic treatment and acetic acid gavage. Acetic acid acidifies the crop’s contents and discourages yeast and bacterial growth. The most common clinical signs of crop stasis are a visibly oversized static crop and regurgitation. Although a manageable problem, crop stasis can be a fatal condition due to dehydration and sepsis and, therefore, demands immediate intervention.........."



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