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DL
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xx REHYDRATION
« Thread started on: Oct 28th, 2006, 05:07am »

From "Practical Wildlife Care" by Les Stocker:
It is possible to mix your own equivalent oral rehydrating salts by using the following ingredients:

7g sodium chloride (NaCl, common salt)
5g sodium bicarbonate (baking soda)
3g potassium chloride (commonly called "Muriate of Potash". Salt substitutes contain mostly potassium chloride)
40g glucose (a common source is corn syrup)
2 litres water

The solution must be mixed thoroughly and discarded after 24 hours.


http://www.vcsmilford.com/ft.html
FLUID THERAPY: The Who, What, When, Why, & How
Steven Mensack, VMD Diplomate, American College of Veterinary Emergency & Critical Care
An EXCELLENT review of rehydration basics


http://www.cliniciansbrief.com/cms/portals/_default/pdfs/2006/06NOV_Cap15.pdf
Clincians Brief (excerpt)
"...a warmed, balanced electrolyte solution can be given via the oral, subcutaneous, intrvenous or intraosseous route. The estimated daily fluid requirement for most avian species patients is 40 to 60 ml/kg per day. In renal failure patients, 10% of the birds bodyweight should be given in fluids..."

http://www.anmldr.com/PalmVet/SA-18-7-8-9.htm#rehydration
(small excerpt):
"Cereal-based oral rehydration solution can be made by mixing 1/2 cup dry, precooked infant's rice cereal with 2 cups of water and 1/4 teaspoon of salt. This mixture is thick but drinkable. It is just as effective as glucose-based oral solutions in preventing and treating dehydration and has the added advantage of reducing the volume and duration of diarrhea. "
Note: Human formulation info regarding above:
http://www.medicinenet.com/diarrhea/page7.htm
"Infalyte is the only one that contains rice carbohydrate instead of glucose."


http://www.urbanwildlifesociety.org/WLR/Emaciation.html
(small excerpt):
Hydration
Typically, the author gives nothing but electrolyte fluids during the first eight hours. If, however, the eight hours would stretch into more overnight, she adds an amino acid solution to an oral hydration formula, in order to provide some nutrition. Such solutions contain very few calories, however, and neither do electrolyte solutions. The bird may gain some weight from rehydration, may lose a little since little or no calories are being provided in the first few hours, or may roughly balance out. Do not attempt to provide calories by way of a high percentage glucose solution:
a) their addition makes a solution hypertonic and may actually complicate dehydration
To calculate the amount of fluids necessary to compensate for the deficit and provide the normal daily maintenance levels, see the Fluid Therapy section of the IWRC Basic Wildlife Rehabilitation 1AB Manual3. To rehydrate a bird is a prolonged process and must be continued for the first few days, or as long as any signs of fluid deficit are present, even after emaciation treatment feedings have started.
Calculation of Calories
Different types of animals have different metabolic rates and different caloric requirements. The formula for determining the caloric needs of a bird in your care is as follows:
Animal Factor x (weight in kg) .75 x basal rate factor = Kcal/24 hrs.
The animal factor is a multiplier based on the metabolic rate of different types of animals; as you would assume, these vary from a reptilian low of 10 to a small bird high of 129. Birds are typically divided into two classifications: passerines (or those weighing 100 gms or less) with an animal factor of 129, and non-passerines (those weighing over 100 gms) with an animal factor of 78.3
This formula is an inverse exponential function of the body weight: i.e., the daily caloric requirement is negatively related to body weight (but not in a straight line) or, as we have all noticed, a kestrel needs to eat far more in relation to its body weight than does an eagle!
The basal metabolic rate (BMR) is defined as the number of calories necessary for an animal at rest, in a thermo-neutral environment to maintain its body weight. The basal rate factor depends on the age and condition of the bird and is a multiplier of the basal metabolic rate. That is, a healthy adult bird, in order to maintain its body weight in normal activity, needs 2x the BMR; a sick adult needs 3x, in order to maintain body weight AND provide energy for healing; a healthy, growing juvenile needs 4x; and a sick juvenile, 5x.
The IWRC Basic Wildlife Rehabilitation 1AB manual explains this at length and provides examples of these calculations, as well as charts that can be used in the absence of a calculator with a yx key or a square root key.
Whether your bird is a sick adult or juvenile, it is important to start it out on the low end of the scale: providing no more than 1.5-2 x the BMR in the first day of feeding, and gradually working up over several days to the appropriate basal factor of 3, 4 or 5.
What to Feed, How Often, and How Much
Two of the primary decisions to be made are what to use to provide these calories and how to balance the benefit of numerous small feedings against the stress of handling.
Category I and II birds can usually be started (after the initial period of rehydration and often the addition of small amounts of an amino acid solution to second/third fluids and the first few feedings) on Ultracalä , Isocalä Osmolyteä or Ensureä , all of which are easily digested and absorbed, nutritionally complete, isotonic human tube-feeding formulas. They are approximately 1.0 or 1.1 kcal/ml. The author prefers Ultracalä because of the addition of fiber, which has helped to control some of the diarrhea which tends to accompany the use of Isocalä . Category III animals will probably need an elemental diet: a diet made up primarily of the building blocks of nutrition and which takes little or no energy to break down. Some examples are Vivonexä or Tolerexä , human elemental tube-feeding formulas; they are, however, hypertonic, so since they are usually used while the bird is still being rehydrated, care needs to be taken to offset the hypertonicity with extra fluids. In the absence of these products (which are very expensive), the author has used higher quantities of amino acid solutions in conjunction with Ultracalä .
Using Ultracalä as an example, the quantity to feed is easily determined by taking the result of our kcal formula and dividing by 1.1 kcal/ml. That is, a 300 gm starving (and 10% dehydrated) barn owl which received only fluids and then fluids with amino acids in its first 8 hours, would then need in its next 24 hours, 47.6 kcals (1.5 x basal) or 43 mls of Ultracalä . To calculate how much to tube in each feeding, the rehabilitator must factor in both the volume of Ultracalä and the volume of hydration solution (25 ml) needed for a total oral volume of some 68 ml that must be ingested. A rough rule-of-thumb for figuring out stomach capacity of an animal is 55 ml/kg of body weight: for a 300 gm barn owl, that would mean its maximum capacity would be some 16 ml. In order to minimize the risk of aspiration in an already debilitated bird, the author recommends stepping that number down to approximately 12-15 ml/feeding. Thus, dividing the 68 ml of volume needed during this 24 hours by 15, results in 5 (rounded); resulting in a suggested 5 feedings of 13.7 ml each - 8.7 ml of Ultracalä and 5 ml of fluids. If volume is a problem or the bird regurgitates, fluids can be given SQ instead of orally.
Obviously, the daily calorie requirements will go up as the bird is moved up the scale to its necessary 3, 4 or 5x basal and as it gains weight. This can pose a problem; the author tries to ensure that the system of a debilitated bird is clear of food for at least part of each day, usually overnight. This means that an ever-expanding amount of calories and volume needs to be ingested over a period of some 14-16 hours.
Category I and II animals can, by day 3 or 4, have Nutri-Calâ added to their diet; it is a low-volume, high calorie supplement which provides 6 kcal/ml. Because it is fat-based (34.5%), it takes a certain amount of energy to assimilate and the bird needs to be able to provide this. Nutri-Calâ should be used very judiciously and with caution on a Category III animal. If a Category III bird is moved slowly up the scale to 3 or 4x basal, it may be able to assimilate Nutri-Calâ by the time many small meals have exhausted its volume capacity.

http://www.dcavm.org/03mar.html
(small excerpt):
Fluids
The choice of fluids therapy is dictated by the cause of the shock. Ideally the fluids uses to treat patients should be identical to the fluids lost by the patient. If the patient lost 40% of its blood volume out on the pavement then whole blood is going to be an essential part of the fluid resuscitation. If the patient has been vomiting for 2 days and has lost electrolytes then electrolyte-replacing fluids are essential. If the patient has a protein-losing enteropathy or a severe vasculitis then fluids, that provide colloid support to counteract the effects of the lost proteins will be needed. Fluids should be given as fast as necessary to resuscitate the patient.
Crystalloids
Crystalloids are fluids containing sodium chloride and other solutes that are capable of distributing to all body fluid compartments. The most commonly used replacement fluids are 0.9% saline, lactated Ringer's solution and Normosol-R or Plasmalyte-A. Buffered solutions are usually indicated for resuscitating patients in shock since administration of a highly acidotic solution may worsen a preexisting metabolic acidosis. The exception to this is the patient with a metabolic alkalosis from a gastric outflow obstruction or a patient with a concurrent Addisonian crisis. Electrolyte abnormalities should be corrected based on lab results.
Hypertonic saline is a hyperosmolar crystalloid fluid used for resuscitation of hypovolemia. ......"
« Last Edit: Aug 17th, 2007, 07:15am by DL » User IP Logged

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xx Re: REHYDRATION
« Reply #1 on: Aug 9th, 2007, 08:11am »

http://www.birdchannel.com/bird-species/baby-birds/pediatric-concerns.aspx
"Dehydration also causes crop stasis. Dehydrated birds are less active, their gastrointestinal function is slow and water might be absorbed out of the food in the crop, leading to an impaction..."


http://www.funnyfarmexotics.com/IAS/2003Proceedings/Romagnano_Pediatrics.pdf
(Excerpt)
..."Fluids are key in the treatment of both crop and other GIT stasis cases.6,7 Oral fluids rehydrate
inspissated crop material and hasten its passage. SQ fluids are the treatment of choice for systemic rehydration. IV fluids are best in the severely dehydrated patient. In these cases, placement of a right jugular IV catheter is preferred. These IV catheters are safely maintained for days. If the crop is severely impacted, repeated flushing with warm saline may be needed to empty it. A crop bra is a simple form of mechanical management for the over stretched crop.
The bras are made in-house of Vetrap (3M Vetrap, Animal Care Products, St. Paul, MN). In a severely over-stretched crop, reduction surgery may be necessary to facilitate emptying.
Further, hypoproteinemia may occur secondary to severe chronic crop stasis. In these cases, whole blood transfusions and metoclopromide or cisapride may be indicated, as long as GI obstruction has been ruled out.

Chronic non-responsive crop stasis may involve mural candidiasis. These cases are best diagnosed with biopsy and require long-term systemic antifungal and antibiotic treatment and acetic acid gavage. Acetic acid acidifies the crop’s contents and discourages yeast and bacterial growth. The most common clinical signs of crop stasis are a visibly oversized static crop and regurgitation. Although a manageable problem, crop stasis can be a fatal condition due to dehydration and sepsis and, therefore, demands immediate intervention. ..."

NOTE-DL >SC rehydration: birds have extensive air sacs throughout their body that should not be punctured. Also, a needle in the wrong place may paralyze the legs.

http://www.avianmedicine.net/avmedpp/0033.htm
(use of TYRODE ISOTONIC ELECTROLYTE SOLUTION in cases of avian Polyuria and Polydipsia)

http://www.exoticdvm.com/index.cfm?fuseaction=avixproducts.stdProduct&product_id=136&parentGroup_id=137&

Tyrode's Solution - 11 g

A Balanced Isotonic Electrolyte

11 g packet

BENEFITS: • Useful in restoring electrolytes in cases of renal medullary washout from veterinary-documented polyuria/polydipsia (PU/PD) • Clinical improvement should be seen in 4 days if used as the only source of drinking water • Clinically tested for safety and efficacy by Greg J. Harrison, DVM, Dipl ABVP-Avian, Dipl ECAMS

DIRECTIONS: Add entire contents of envelope to 1 quart (approx. 1 L) drinking water and use as the animal’s only source of drinking water for 4 days. Discard any remaining solution. Use as directed by your avian veterinarian.

INGREDIENTS: NaCl, Na2HCO3, glucose, KCl, CaCl2, MgCl2, Na2HPO4.
The link above has a list where you can access this product


« Last Edit: Aug 9th, 2007, 2:25pm by DL » User IP Logged

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xx Re: DURVET eletrolite/vit solution
« Reply #2 on: Nov 17th, 2007, 2:26pm »

(source: DURVET)
http://p098.ezboard.com/fbackyardchickensfrm30.showMessage?topicID=113.topic
If you have the 4 oz. packet of Vitamins and Electrolytes then you would mix ½ teaspoon into 1 gallon of water.

If you have the 8 oz. packet of Vitamins and Electrolytes then you would mix ¾ teaspoon into 1 gallon of water "
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