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xx Feed Calculation
« Thread started on: Sep 20th, 2006, 08:34am »

http://www.format-international.com/
Download PEARSON SQUARE at this link (Provides an easy way to calculate mixtures of two ingredients. Very useful in the fertilizer, animal feed, and sausage industries. Animal Science and Veterinary students should also find it very useful. )

http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/AA160
Poultry Diets For Small Flocks
(An Excellent Article!)

http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/poulsci/tech_manuals/nutrient_intake.pdf
Determine Nutrient Intake of Broilers and Laying Hens

http://www.agri-data.com/
I found this on the TAMU Virtual Library ... for those interested in feed calculation software it has a free trial (though I would acquaint my self with the site so you download the correct software for poultry!)

http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/ARTICLE/AGRIPPA/659_en-09.htm#TopOfPage
Digestibility and availability of certain amino acids in soybean meal and fishmeal using TME bioassay
(Charts with calculations comparing fishmeal and soybean concentrations of amino acids)

http://www.engormix.com/e_articles_view.asp?art=257&AREA=AVG
Formulating Feed For Broiler Performance

http://www.engormix.com/e_articles_view.asp?art=171&AREA=AVG
Feeding During The Production Period - Amino Acids Requirements
« Last Edit: Apr 10th, 2007, 06:36am by DL » User IP Logged

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xx Re: Feed Calculation
« Reply #1 on: Apr 10th, 2007, 04:24am »

http://www.ag.auburn.edu/~lchiba/an12poultryfeeding.pdf
POULTRY NUTRITION AND FEEDING
CReferences: Jurgens (2002) & NRC (1994) as the main sources with Hooge (1998) in
Kellems and Church (1998), Waldroup, P. W. [2001. Dietary nutrient allowances for chickens and turkeys. Feedstuffs 73(29):56-65], and Larbier, M. and B. Leclercq [1992.
Translation by J. Wiseman (1994)].
(excerpt)
INTRODUCTION1. Poultry Nutrition in General
A.. Poultry - Any of the domesticated and commercialized types of birds used for productionof eggs and(or) meat for human food (. . . also for other purposes though!).Be.g., Chickens, turkeys, pigeons, peafowl, ducks, geese, upland game birds (quail,
pheasant, partridges . . .) and ratites (ostriches, emu . . .).
B. Chickens, turkeys and laying hens have been commercially produced in “confinement” for more than 70 years:
1) For each species, the NRC list suggested requirements for 14 amino acids, 12minerals, 13 vitamins, and one fatty acid.
2) Should be aware that those recommendations are based on limited and, sometimes,very old information (especially true with some vitamins & trace minerals).
3) Still many gaps in the information pool needed for optimum production.....................................

POULTRY DIETS IN GENERAL
1. Diet Formulation - Steps involved poultry diet formulation are similar to formulating diets for pigs.

2. Feed Ingredients and Additives:
A .Corn and soybean meal - Usually the most plentiful and lowest-cost sources of energy andwell-balanced protein, thus extensively used, especially in the US.
B. Fish meals and meat meals - Good sources of protein, amino acids, and also contain bone,a source of highly available Ca and P - Add 2 to 5% of the diet depending on their prices.
C. Ca & P - Major minerals. Only 30 to 40% of plant P is nonphytin P, which is available topoultry. Either increase the availability or supplement with inorganic source.
D. Salt - 0.2 to 0.5% is added to most poultry diets.
E.Supplemental lipids (up to 5% of the diet) - May increase energy utilization through areduced passage rate? Also, can reduce heat increment.
F. Yellow pigmentation - Use as much yellow corn as possible plus good sources ofxanthophyll, such as alfalfa meal or corn gluten meal, for the yellow coloration of the shanks, feet, skin, and egg yolks?
G. Non-nutritive additives are used for a variety of reasons - e.g., antibiotics (to stimulategrowth & control diseases), arsenicals and nitrofurans (to improve performance), antiparasitic compounds, antioxidative, & antifungal compounds.
ENERGY AND NUTRIENTS FOR POULTRY
1. Energy, Protein and Amino Acids
A. Energy requirement:
1) “Comfort” zone of .68 to 82°F (20 to 27.8°C):
a) Can expect “optimum” metabolic activity, i.e., no panting,cold stress, etc.
b) But, very young birds need a warmer temperature until theycan maintain their body temperature at about 10 d of age. [See the figure on “Thermo-neutral temperature of the young bird” (Larbier & Leclercq, 1992)]LThus, younger birds can tolerate heat-stress better - Broilers over 4 wk & turkeys over 10 wk of age are most susceptible to heat stress!
2) Impossible to set an energy requirement in
terms of unit/kg diet because birds adjust their
feed intake to achieve the daily energy intake? [See
the figure on the effect of the energy density on
feed intake (Larbier & Leclercq, 1992).]
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xx Re: Feed Calculation
« Reply #2 on: Apr 10th, 2007, 04:40am »

(excerpt contd.).................
Laying Hens
A. Higher concentrations of vitamins (A, D, E, riboflavin, pantothenic acid, niacin and B12)and Mn & Zn would be required if eggs are to be used for hatching.

B. White Leghorn - Need about 18 g of protein/bird/d to support optimum egg production,thus with a 15% CP diet, must consume .25 to 26 lb of feed/100 birds/day.

C. Met - First limiting amino acid, and economical to use its analogs.

D. Ca, P, and Vitamin D - Important for egg shell formation?
1) Ca requirement - Varies with the age, ambient temperature, rate of lay, and egg size,but a general recommendation is 3.4 g Ca/d & 3.8 g Ca/d after 40 wk of age.
2) P? - 0.3 to 0.4% available P, which is equivalent to about 0.5 to 0.6% total P.
3) Adequate vitamin D3is must.

E. Grit - Its use can improve feed efficiency slightly, but not when finely ground feeds arefed. (Can be fed in special feeders every 3 wk, mixed in a complete feed at 0.25% of the
diet or sprinkled on top of the feed at a rate of 5 lb per 1000 hens every week.)

F. “Phase feeding” - To reduce the waste of nutrients caused by feeding more than necessary:
1) Pullets coming into egg production - 17 to 19% CP, and lowered to 15 to 16% after 3to 4 mo of lay, or when the pullet has attained the adult weight.
2) Feed intake decreases as the temperature increases above 85 to 90°F, thus may benecessary to increase the CP to 18% or 20% when temperature exceeds 100°F for an extended period of time
« Last Edit: Apr 10th, 2007, 04:42am by DL » User IP Logged

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