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DL
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xx Feed Toxins
« Thread started on: Apr 4th, 2007, 05:42am »

http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/ARTICLE/AGRIPPA/659_en-10.htm#TopOfPage
Endogenous and exogenous feed toxins
(excerpt):Feedstuffs incorporated in compounded feeds are known to contain a wide variety of toxicants that are endogenous (Table-10) or exogenous in nature and adversely affect the production of egg and meat. Amelioration of these toxicants is absolutely necessary to warrant the health and profitable poultry production."

« Last Edit: Apr 4th, 2007, 06:07am by DL » User IP Logged

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xx Re: Feed Toxins
« Reply #1 on: Apr 4th, 2007, 06:10am »

[td valign="top"][p]Toxic factors[/p][/td][td valign="top"][p]Raw soyabean and its meal[/p][/td][td valign="top"][p]Trypsin inhibitor, phytohaemagglutinin, antigens, lipoxygenase, goiterogen, saponin, estrogen, phytic-acid and oligosaccharides (NSPs – 30.3%)[/p][/td][td valign="top"][p]Groundnut and its meal[/p][/td][td valign="top"][p]Trypsin inhibitor, goiterogen, tannins, oligosaccharides and lectins[/p][/td][td valign="top"][p]Mustard or rape seed and its meal[/p][/td][td valign="top"][p]Goiterogens (thioglucosides or glucosinolates), tannic acid, erucic acid, sinapine (cholinester), pectins and oligosaccharides (NSPs - 46.1 %)[/p][/td][td valign="top"][p]Safflower seed and its meal[/p][/td][td valign="top"][p]Estrogenic factor, Two phenolic glucosides (Bitter flavour) and Fibre[/p][/td][td valign="top"][p]Sunflower seed and its meal[/p][/td][td valign="top"][p]Chlorogenic, quinic-acid and Fibre (Tannin like compounds) [/p][/td][td valign="top"][p]Sesame seed and its cake[/p][/td][td valign="top"][p]Phytate (5g/100g) and Oxalates (35 mg/100g)[/p][/td][td valign="top"][p]Linseed and its cake[/p][/td][td valign="top"][p]Linamarin (cyanogenic glucoside), antipyridoxine (Linatin) factor and mucilage (HCN Level → 10-300 mg)[/p][/td][td valign="top"][p]Kapok seed meal (seeds of silk cotton tree)[/p][/td][td valign="top"][p]Tannins, tyrosine and fattyacids with cyclopropene rings[/p][/td][td valign="top"][p]Copra meal (coconut meal)[/p][/td][td valign="top"][p]Fibre (mannans) and Estrogenic factor[/p][/td][td valign="top"][p]Palm kernel meal[/p][/td][td valign="top"][p]Fibre (half of the fibre–NDF high levels of galactomannans β-(1,4)-D mannans) and Sharp shells[/p][/td][td valign="top"][p]Cotton seed and its meals[/p][/td][td valign="top"][p]Gossypol (phenol like compound), cyclopropenoid fatty acids, tannins[/p][/td][td valign="top"][p]Cotton seed and its meals[/p][/td][td valign="top"][p]Gossypol (phenol like compounds) cyclopropenoid fatty acids, tannins[/p][/td][td valign="top"][p]Guar meal (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba)[/p][/td][td valign="top"][p]Guar gum (18-20%), antitrypsin factor and antivitamin E factor[/p][/td][td valign="top"][p]Castor seed and its meal[/p][/td][td valign="top"][p]Ricin (toxalbumin)-Phytohaemagglutinin [/p][p]Ricinine (Toxic-alkaloid)[/p][p]Ricinus allergen(Protein Polysaccharide)[/p][/td][td valign="top"][p]Neem seed and its meal (Azadirachta indica)[/p][/td][td valign="top"][p]Bitterness → Limonoids → Triterpenoids [/p][p]Bitter principles: Protomeliacins, Limonoids, Azadirone, Gedunin, Vilasinin and Secomeliacins[/p][p]Nonisoprenoid polypenolics-Flavanoids, Tannins and coumarin viz. Nimbin, Salannin and Azadirachtin [/p][p]Dried seeds – limonoids – 0.001 to 0.1%, Azadirone, 0.45% and Epoxy Azadirone, 0.72%, Azadiradione, 0.7% and Salanin, 0.95%[/p][/td][td valign="top"][p]Mahua cake (Madhuca latifolia)[/p][/td][td valign="top"][p]Mowrin (Saponin) and Tannins[/p][/td][td valign="top"][p]Karanja cake (Pongamia glabra)[/p][/td][td valign="top"][p]Fat bound toxic factors – Karajnjin and Pongamol (Flavanoids) (NSPs – 38%)[/p][/td][td valign="top"][p]Lupin meal[/p][/td][td valign="top"][p]Quinolizidine alkaloids, pectins, oligosaccharides, high manganese, saponin.[/p][/td][td valign="top"][p]Peas[/p][/td][td valign="top"][p]Protease inhibitors, tannins, Lipoxygenase and lectins[/p][/td][td valign="top"][p]Rubber seed meal[/p][/td][td valign="top"][p]Hydrocyanic-acid (20-40mg/kg)[/p][/td][td valign="top"][p]Maize[/p][/td][td valign="top"][p]Selenoamino acids (seleniferous)[/p][p]Estrogen (mouldy)[/p][p]Trypsin inhibitor[/p][/td][td valign="top"][p]Wheat[/p][/td][td valign="top"][p]Tyramine, Trypsin-inhibitor, NSPs (11.4%)[/p][/td][td valign="top"][p]Rice[/p][/td][td valign="top"][p]Estrogen and haemagglutinins[/p][/td][td valign="top"][p]Rye[/p][/td][td valign="top"][p]Amylase and protease inhibitor and NSPs (13.2%)[/p][/td][td valign="top"][p]Oats[/p][/td][td valign="top"][p]Amylase inhibitor and estrogens[/p][/td][td valign="top"][p]Triticale[/p][/td][td valign="top"][p]Trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitor (NSPs)[/p][/td][td valign="top"][p]Some varieties of barley[/p][/td][td valign="top"][p]β - glucan (NSPs – 16.7%)[/p][/td][td valign="top"][p]Some varieties of sorghum[/p][/td][td valign="top"][p]Tannins[/p][/td][td valign="top"][p]Rice-polish and rice bran[/p][/td][td valign="top"][p]Trypsin inhibitor and antithiamine factor[/p][/td][td valign="top"][p]Chunies[/p][/td][td valign="top"][p]Antitryptic factor[/p][/td][td valign="top"][p]Sal seed and its meal[/p][/td][td valign="top"][p]Tannic – acid (tannins)[/p][/td][td valign="top"][p]Tapioca meal (Cassava)[/p][/td][td valign="top"][p]Cyanogenic glucoside (HCN – 1000 – 3000 mg/kg DM)[/p][/td][td valign="top"][p]Fish meal and meat meal (prepared from spoiled or putrefied material)[/p][/td][td valign="top"][p]Gizzerosine and histamine (Biogenic amines)[/p][/td]
[p]Table 10. Endogenous toxic factors in feeds of plant origin.[/p][p][table border="1" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="7" width="80%"][tr][td valign="top"][p]Feedstuffs[/p]
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