Dragonflies and Dandelions
Nutrition >> General Nutrition/The Basics >> links to articles

links to articles
Post by DL on Sep 11th, 2006, 11:27am

The links and articles in this section range from the BASICS for general flock care to the very specific articles at an advanced level ... for definitions to terms you may not be acquainted with, please refer to the TERMINOLOGY thread in the PRACTICAL MATTERS category for definitions (in particular the FEED terminology thread)

Poultry Feeds and Nutrition FAQ

This article has a great symptoms chart and the relevant vitamin deficiency associated with it.

Nutritional Recquirements of Birds

Trace Minerals

Small Poultry Flock Nutrition

Nutrition for the Backyard Flock

Nutrition and Feeding of Show Poultry (Texas Agr. Ext. Service)

The Nutritional Requirements of Hatchling Poultry


Duck Nutrition

Game Birds

Nutrition links page Purdue University (besides the extensive poultry links also included are links for quail, ratites and turkeys)

The PoultrySite Featured Nutritional Articles

Minerals in Drinking Water and Poultry Production

Poultry Diets For Small Flock (various feed formulations)

POULTRY NUTRITION LINKS PAGE (Excellent) from the University of Minnesota

Nutritional requirements vary amongst the poultry species. This factsheet discusses general principles in poultry nutrition for all species. It also discusses where these nutrients can be obtained.
Crude Protein
Dietary protein is important for animal growth, development and maintenance. Crude protein is a measurement based on the nitrogen content of a feed ingredient. However, not all protein is the same. The components (amino acids) that make up crude protein can differ a great deal in type and concentration from one source to the next. Therefore the quality of protein also varies.

There are essential and non-essential amino acids. Essential amino acids must be provided in the diets, while non-essential amino acids can be produced by the animal itself if necessary. The dietary balance of amino acids is also very important. An animal will not perform well if the ratio of one or more amino acids to the others is not appropriate.

Protein can be found in most feedstuffs, but concentrated protein supplements are often used in diets to meet amino acid requirements. Cereal grains alone do not provide enough of the essential amino acids or a balanced profile. Typical sources of concentrated protein are oilseed meals (such as soybean meal), meat meal, poultry by-products meal and fish meal. Canola meal and legumes (peas, lentils) can be used in limited quantities.
Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 (1994)
Board on Agriculture (BOA) COMPLETE online acess (NRC requirements are based on this) to this EXTENSIVE and complete book ...

(Maine Organic Farmersand Gardeners AssociationMOFGA FACT SHEET #13Feeding Whole Grains to Chickens)

Feeding egg shells as a calcium source is not satisfactory because of the poor digestibility of the shells. Laying hens need about 4% calcium in their diet and you would need to feed a hen two to three egg shells everyday to meet this requirement.

Peas can comprise as much as 20% of the ration; however, they do not contain sufficient amino acids to meet all of the bird's protein requirements. Peas also contain some anti-nutritional factors that can interfere with digestion. Faba beans can be included at a 10% level in diets fed to young birds but should not be used in laying hen rations because they can cause reduced egg size and egg yolks that break easily. Canola meal is a reasonably good protein source but canola seed, due to its high fat content, should be limited to 10% of the diet. Canola seed is difficult for the bird's gizzard to grind properly; the seed should be ground with some grain in a hammer or roller mill prior to feeding it.

(Protein Crops-Production and Nutritional Aspects)
Many raw legumes contain anti-nutritional factors, toxic compounds such as trypsin inhibitors and tannins which can reduce intake or the animal's ability to digest feed, reducing growth and production. These anti-nutritional factors can have major effects on monogastrics (pigs and poultry) but have less effect on ruminants because rumen activity can break down the toxic compounds. The problem of anti-nutritional factors can be overcome by limiting inclusion of the ingredient.

(A Guide to Feeding Field Peas to Livestock )

The Ideal Amino Acid Requirements and Profile for Broilers, Layers, and Broiler Breeders

Course Avian Nutrient Requirements Pensacola Jr. College

BASF Nutrition Articles

The following article explains the (interdependent) relationship between calcium and phosporous...I have included a few excerpts to give an idea of why you should read and understand the article before attempting to mix your own feed rations...
Many factors influence the utilization and metabolism of calcium and phosphorus in the body. Some of the most important include the ratio of the two elements in the diet, the amount of vitamin D present, the biological availability of the supplements used to provide the elements, and the age and physiological state of the animal. Young animals with a rapidly developing skeletal system tend to use the minerals more efficiently than do older animals; hens in active egg production utilize minerals more effectively than non-layers.

Although seldom stated, the term implies a "relative" bioavailability. The phosphorus from any source is never completely available or utilized. Some of it is always lost in normal digestive and metabolic processes. Further, many factors influence phosphorus absorption. The "true" or "absolute" availability of the phosphorus from any source is a goal that is often sought but is unlikely to be obtained, due to the myriad of factors that are involved.

One often overlooked aspect of mineral nutrition is adjustment of dietary Ca level in respect to phytate P levels. This is especially important when feed ingredients high in phytate P are included in the diet, such as rice bran, wheat bran, canola meal, or sunflower meal. Failure to adjust the minimum calcium content of the diet in such situations may lead to a calcium deficiency (Nelson et al., 1968b). Nelson (1984) suggested the following formula to adjust dietary Ca levels in the presence of phytate P:

Different poultry and nutritional publications are on this site...access to THE POULTRY DISEASE HANDBOOK is also to be found here...highly recommended.

Phytase application in Poultry Feed
As is generally known, monogastric animals such as chickens do not have the ability to digest the phosphorus in plant sources. However, ruminants such as sheep and cattle have no such problem, because the microbes in the rumen produce phytase, an enzyme that digests the phytin phosphorus found in plants. It is therefore, necessary to supplement the diets of poultry with readily available inorganic P e.g. dicalciuim phosphate.

Effective utilization of Fibre in Poultry

Interrelationship of High Fat/Vitamin A Poultry Feed and Vitamin D

Re: links to articles
Post by DL on Oct 18th, 2006, 4:15pm

Nutritional Articles from NOVUS International

SUMMARY: Feeding Chickens for Best Health and Performance



RESEARCH ABSTRACTS on various NUTRITION studies from the University of Mississippi Poultry Science Dept.

"A number of factors influence amino acid digestibility. The nature and digestion of dietary protein will reflect breeding programs, agronomic conditions, presence of anti-nutritive factors and processing."..........................
" Dietary protein digestion:
All dietary sources of protein are heterogenous mixtures of different proteins. It would be anticipated,
therefore, that different proteins would be digested at different rates and this in turn would cause a variation in the rate at which different amino acids were taken up from the gut. However, the situation is more complex than this as proteins, although different in their chemical compositions, are not isolated entities but have various linkages with carbohydrates, lipids and other proteins so that these interactions and the composition of the diet may affect the digestibility of dietary protein (Hughes and Choct, 1999). In addition, digestion and absorption may be inhibited by the presence of anti-nutritive factors in the diet....Ironically, those feedstuffs (such as grain legumes and oil seed meals) which are used extensively as sources of dietary protein also contain the highest concentrations of anti-nutritional factors. ......

The Ideal Amino Acid Requirements of Broilers,Layers and BroilerBreeders


Basic facts on FEATHER MEAL


Nutrition and Digestion...Why/How Enzymes and Betaine aids digestion of nutrients (small excerpt below)
...."Like all organisms, microbes need a supply of nutrients and a suitable environment to inhabit (e.g. the caeca). It has been known for many years that the diet fed to the host animal influences microflora development and distribution. Feeding high viscosity cereal grains to broilers, such as wheat and barley, has been shown to result in larger microbial populations in the ileum............................. A viscous environment slows down digestion processes, and encapsulates nutrients, making them inaccessible to digestive enzymes. Viscous gels are formed in the digesta by the non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) arabinoxylan and betaglucan, which cannot be digested by the animals own enzymes, .......................Animals fed poorer quality diets are at risk of developing larger intestinal microbial populations particularly in stressful environments. Increased bacterial numbers will then compete for nutrients and could proliferate to pathogenic levels"

LINKS PAGE to various organic feedsouces and info(univ. MN)

TABLE: Nutrient content of Fruits and Vegetables

great article on sprouting seeds safely

History and Importance of Selenium for Poultry

DUCKWEED...I had no idea about the protein values of duckweed...an interesting read: DUCKWEED - a potential high-protein feed resource for domestic animals and fish

The above article gives not only great definitions used in the feed articles but also has charts giving maximum levels of most individual feed elements and their eventual known toxins and anti-nutitional factors.


LESSON 11 Using Dietary and Management Strategies to Reduce the Nutrient Excretion of PoultryStrategies to Modify Nitrogen (N) in Poultry (excerpts below)
Manure and LitterDietary strategiesFormulate based on amino acid requirements rather than crudeprotein (CP). Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. There are more than 20 amino acids that comprise proteins. About half of these are essential (must be provided in the birdsí diet) with the remainder being non-essential (the bird can make them in adequate quantities). Dietary formulation based on bird amino acid requirements rather than CP can minimize N excretion by simply reducing total dietary N intake........Work
published by universities and amino acid manufacturers gives the true digestible amino acid concentration and/or coefficients of amino acid digestibility of cereal grains, plant proteins, and animal proteins. Formulating
poultry diets based on the true amino acid digestibility rather than the total amino acid concentration goes a long way in refining amino acid levels provided in the diet.The benefits of formulation based on true digestible amino acidrecommendations and ingredient amino acid true digestibility are twofold. First, it helps one compare the ecological value of different ingredients. Consider the value of a low-quality meat and bone meal (MBM) with a high-quality fish meal (FM) (Esteve-Garcia et al. 1993) as sources of digestible....


(cinnamons antimicrobial

For poultry, maximum inclusion rate is 5%.
Molasses are often added to the feed at the mill, either mixed with concentrates or included in the pellet.
Molasses are a good source of macro and microminerals. The major macrominerals in molasses are potassium, calcium, chlorine, and sulfate salts.


An excellent article on NUTRITION and FEED practicalities >check out this site for more practical basics (links at bottom of page) EXCERPT:
"In studying feeds digestibility must be considered. Composition does not necessarily indicate the true value of feeds, because these may not be digestible. The digestibility of poultry feeds has not been studied sufficiently. There are considerable difficulties in the way. Probably, however, these studies will be made in the future and better systems of feeding will be worked out. So far the chemical composition of feeds and the analogies between poultry feeding and animal feeding are the only guides for working out balanced rations for poultry........Nutritive Ratio
What is called the nutritive ratio is the proportion existing between the content of protein and that of fat and heat-producing constituents. To produce eggs, what is called a narrow nutritive ratio should be fed; that is, a proportion of one part protein to four or five of carbohydrates and fat. In figuring the ratio the fat is multiplied by 2-1/4, because 1 pound is estimated to be equivalent to that amount of carbohydrates. It must be remembered, however, that a nutritive ratio in itself does not necessarily indicate the true value of a ration. Palatability, digestibility and other factors must be reckoned with. Even a proper ratio does not guarantee a good egg yield. The kinds of feed must be considered, and the feeder must be guided by results that indicate the value of the different feeds."

(you may be asked to register in order to view this article...this is Free and I have more info from this source posted...if you do not want to register pm me and I will give you my password to view this article)
Re: links to articles
Post by DL on Feb 11th, 2007, 2:13pm

Fishmeal in Poultry Diets: Understanding the production of this valuable feed ingredient

Nutrition and Feather Pecking
Re: Misc. related articles
Post by DL on Apr 11th, 2007, 06:56am

Make your own yhogurt!!!

INSECT CRUMBLE aka Unviersal Sorftbill Feed for non-seed eating birds:
Dried bakery products, dried whole egg, sugar, vegetable protein extracts, insects, fruit, oils, yeast, Vitamin A, Vitamin D3, Vitamin E, Menadione Sodium Bisulfite complex (source of vitamin K activity), Thiamine Mononitrate (B1), Riboflavin (B2), Calcium Pantothenate, Choline Chlorid, Niacin, Pyridoxine Hydrochloride (B6), Vitamin B12, Folic Acid (C), Calcium-Carbonate, Sodium Chloride, Magnesium oxide, Manganous oxide, Zinc oxide, Iron sulphate, Copper sulphate, Cobalt sulphate, Potassium Iodate, L-Lysine, DL-Methionine
(the exact percentages are listed on the package)

Crude Protein ... 18.6%
Crude Fat ... 9.3%
Total Carbohydrate ... 46.2%
Crude Fiber ... 2.3%
Crude Ash ... 6.3%
Moisture ... 11.0%
(NOTE from DL:
They also have an extra egg enriched version and a high protein (crustaceans and molluscs) version (click on the CeDe thumbnail to bring up the "other products" page) but I find these personally too expensive since you can easily achieve this by adding your own (cooked) egg or some cheap shrimp whereby the shells and all are ground up in food processor(rinse well and microwave before mixng in).

Re: links to articles
Post by Carol Kent on Feb 10th, 2012, 12:07am

on Feb 11th, 2007, 2:13pm, DL wrote:

Fishmeal in Poultry Diets: Understanding the production of this valuable feed ingredient

Nutrition and Feather Pecking

I visit and read your article you provide great information about Fishmeal in Poultry Diets, keep updating
Re: links to articles
Post by DL on Feb 14th, 2012, 12:32am

Thanks for the feedback... I have been swamped the last few months with real life obligations and I hope to get back this project soon!