Dragonflies and Dandelions
Parasites and Pest Management >> Treatment and Discussion forum >> Research
Post by DL on Sep 2nd, 2008, 03:42am
(At the end of the article is a link to download the fulltext pdf)
Effect of herbal treatments and chick quality on
the response of young organic layer poults after
an infection with coccidiosis
Two experiments were carried out to study the effect of herbal products on the response of young organic layer
poults infected with coccidiosis. Since chick quality may play an important role in this response, chick quality was
included as main factor in both experiments. Good quality chicks had no visual external abnormalities, and bad quality chicks had poor naval quality. In the first experiment, inoculation with three different types of Eimeria o÷cysts (E. acervulina, E. maxima and E. tenella took place at d10. In the second experiment, inoculation with E. maxima took place at d8, and inoculation with E. acervulina and E. tenella at d10. The effect of the coccidiosis infection on damage of the intestinal epithelium was determined by means of lesion scores at d16 in experiment 1, and at d15, 16, 17 and 28 in experiment 2. Also the effects of the treatments on the technical performance of the chicks were examined. Based on the results in this study, there was no evidence that herbal products can
help young organic layer poults to better cope with a coccidiosis infection. Chick quality influenced technical
results, but had no effect on Eimeria lesion scores. No interaction between herbal product and chick quality could be demonstrated..............."
Literature from this research study is a further source of interest:
Botsoglou, N.A., P. Florou-Paneri, E. Christaki, D.J. Fletouris en A.B. Spais. 2002. Effect of dietary
oregano essential oil on performance of chickens and on iron induced lipid oxidation of breast, thigh
and abdominal fat tissues. Br. Poult. Sci., 43: 223-230.
Chapman, H.D., T.E. Cherry, H.D. Danforth, G. Richards, M.W. Shirley en R.B. Williams. 2002. Sustainable
coccidiosis control in poultry production; the role of live vaccines. Int. J. Parasitol., 32: 617-629.
Dorman, H.J.D. en S.G. Deans. 2000. Antimicrobial agents from plants: antibacterial activity of plant volatile
oils. J. Appl. Microbiol., 29: 130-135.
Economou, K.D., V. Oreopoulou en C.D. Thomopoulos. 1991. Antioxidant properties of some plant extracts
of the Labiatae family. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 68: 109-113.
Giannenas, I., P. Florou-Paneri, M. Papazahariadou, E. Christaki, N.A. Botsoglou en A.B. Spais. 2003.
Effect of dietary supplementation with oregano essential oil on performance of broilers after
experimental infection with Eimeria tenella. Arch. Anim. Nutr., 57: 99-106.
Lillehoj, H.S. en E.P. Lillehoj. 2000. Avian coccidiosis. A review of acquired intestinal immunity and
vaccination strategies. Avian Dis., 44: 408-425.
Johnson, J. en W.M. Reid. 1970. Anticoccidial drugs: Lesion scoring techniques in battery and floor-pen
experiments with chickens. Exp. Parasitol., 28: 30-36.
Jones, F.T. en S.C. Ricke. 2003. Observations on the history of the development of antimicrobials and their
use in poultry feeds. Poult. Sci., 82: 613-617.
Kamel, C. 2000. A novel look at a classic approach of plant extracts. Feed Mix, 8:16-17.
Lee, K.W., H. Everts en A.C. Beynen. 2004. Essential oils in broiler nutrition. Int. J. Poult. Sci., 3: 738-752.
Paster, N., B.J. Juven, E. Shaaya, M. Menasherov, R. Nitzan, H. Weisslowitz en U. Ravid. 1990. Inhibitory
effect of oregano and thyme essential oils on moulds and foodborne bacteria. Lett. Appl. Microbiol.,
Thomke, S. en K. Elwinger. 1998. Growth promotants in feeding pigs and poultry. II. Mode of action of
antibiotic growth promotants. Ann. Zootech., 47:153-167.
Magner, B.R. 1991. Anticoccidials. In: Brander, G.C., Paugh, D.M., Bywater, R.J. en Jenkins, W.L. (Eds.),
Veterinary applied pharmacology and therapeutics, 5th ed., ELBS, Bailliere Tindall, London, pp:
Van Asseldonk, T. 2007. Overzicht van de achtergrondliteratuur bij de Fyto-V dierproeven. Deel 1.
Pluimvee (coccidiose challenge). Intern rapport.
Voeten, A. C. 2000. Gezond Pluimvee. Uitgeverij Terra, Warnsveld.
Williams, P. en R. Losa. 2001. The use of essential oils and their compounds in poultry nutrition. World
Poult., 17: 14-15.
Williams, R.B. 2002. Anticoccidial vaccines for broiler chickens: pathways to success. Avian Pathol.,
Young, H.J. en J.W. Noh. 2001. Screening of the anticoccidial effects of herb extracts against Eimeria
tenella. Vet. Parasitol., 96: 257-263.
Freeze-dried Plum powder for cocci?
Post by DL on Oct 30th, 2008, 05:55am
Keeping an eye on this :
1: Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2008 Sep;31(5):389-402. Epub 2007 Aug 7. Links
Immunomodulatory properties of dietary plum on coccidiosis.Lee SH, Lillehoj HS, Lillehoj EP, Cho SM, Park DW, Hong YH, Chun HK, Park HJ.
Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville, MD, USA.
The current study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation with a lyophilized powder made from plums (P) on host protective immune responses against avian coccidiosis, the most economically important parasitic disease of poultry. One-day-old White Leghorn chickens were fed from the time of hatch with a standard diet either without P (control and P 0 groups) or supplemented with P at 0.5% (P 0.5) or 1.0% (P 1.0) of the diet. Animals in the P 0, P 0.5, and P 1.0 groups were orally challenged with 5000 sporulated oocysts of Eimeria acervulina at day 12 post-hatch, while control animals were uninfected. Dietary supplementation of P increased body weight gain, reduced fecal oocyst shedding, and increased the levels of mRNAs for interferon-gamma and interleukin-15 in the P 1.0 group at 10 days post-infection compared with the P 0 group. Furthermore, chickens fed either the P 0.5 or P 1.0 diets exhibited significantly greater spleen cell proliferation compared with the non-plum P 0 group. These results indicate that plum possesses immune enhancing properties, and that feeding chickens a plum-supplemented diet augments protective immunity against coccidiosis.
PMID: 17686519 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]"
(although it does not state the exact product I found this:
Poult Sci. 2008 Nov ;87 (11):2273-80 18931178 (P,S,G,E,B,D) Influence of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract in broiler chickens: effect on chicken coccidiosis and antioxidant status.
"...Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) has been widely used as a human food supplement for health promotion and disease prevention. However, there was little information regarding its application in animal nutrition. The aim of the current study is to determine the effect of GSPE at different concentrations on chicken performance, and the status of antioxidant/oxidant system after the Eimeria tenella infection. In the first experiment, GSPE incorporated in the diet at 5, 10, 20, 40, and 80 mg/kg significantly decreased mortality and increased weight gain after the E. tenella infection, and the protective effect of GSPE was dose-dependent. The lowest mortality and the greatest growth gains were recorded in the group of birds fed with GSPE between 10 to 20 mg/kg. In the second experiment, 12 mg/kg of GSPE supplementation in the diet significantly reduced the mortality and lesion scores in birds after the infection with 5 x 10(4) and 1 x 10(5) oocysts of E. tenella. The weight gains also improved significantly. After the oral infection with 5 x 10(4) and 1 x 10(5) of E. tenella, analysis of the status of antioxidant/oxidant system revealed that plasma NO increased significantly from 7.11 to 21.31 mumol/L, plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD) decreased from 126.55 to 111.14 U/mL, and malondiadehyde increased, suggesting oxidative stress was increased in circulation. However, supplementation of 12 mg/kg GSPE reduced the level of plasma NO from 21.31 to 14.73 mumol/L and increased plasma SOD activities from 111.14 to 133.27 U/mL. The effects of incorporation of GSPE into the poultry diet on the concentration of plasma NO, malondiadehyde, and SOD indicated that the lower concentration of dietary GSPE was able to restore the balance of antioxidant/oxidant system that was exerted by the oxidative stress after the parasite infection. The current results suggested GSPE can act as an antioxidant in diet to improve the performance of broiler chickens and remedy the clinical symptoms caused by the oxidative stress of E. tenella infection. ..."